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ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that can interfere with daily functioning or development. ADHD is typically diagnosed in childhood, but its symptoms can persist into adolescence and adulthood.

There are three subtypes of ADHD based on the predominant symptoms:

  1. Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: Individuals with this subtype often struggle with sustaining attention, organizing tasks, and following through on assignments or duties. They may seem forgetful and easily distracted.

  2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: This subtype is marked by hyperactivity and impulsivity. Individuals may have difficulty sitting still, be overly talkative, and act without thinking about the consequences.

  3. Combined Presentation: This is the most common subtype, involving a combination of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms.

The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Some potential contributors include genetics, prenatal exposure to substances (e.g., tobacco smoke, alcohol), premature birth, low birth weight, and brain injuries.

ADHD can significantly impact various aspects of life, including academic performance, work, relationships, and self-esteem. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms effectively. Treatment approaches often include a combination of behavioral therapies, psychoeducation, and in some cases, medication.

Medications commonly used to manage ADHD symptoms include stimulants (such as methylphenidate and amphetamine-based medications) and non-stimulants (like atomoxetine). It’s important to note that medication is just one component of a comprehensive treatment plan, and individualized approaches are crucial.

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